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Bengali or Bangla New Year is a relatively ‘new’ celebration, but ‘Sangkranti’, or in Thailand, ‘Sangkran’, goes back into the millennia. It comes from the Sanskrit, ‘Sankranta’ and means “a move or change”. It is, I understand, related to the Zodiac cycle and, of course, any point in the circle is both a beginning and an end. In northern India, for instance, April is the beginning of spring when the trees start to bud and bloom and the hibernating animals come out to find food, so, a new beginning. So, for the ancient Indian people, April was a sign of new life and marked the beginning of a new year. That is why they observed (some still do) their New Year’s Day on Apr 13.

And so, a few years ago, I visited an Ecological Agricultural Centre at Pathrail, Delduar, Tangail, where they were observing ‘Sangkranti’. In Bengal, certainly, Sangkranti has cut across all religions and indeed was there before any religion came to this part of the world. Traditionally, the villages still follow certain customs. Early in the morning on the Sangkranti day, the spiritual leaders drink a very nutritious drink to give them energy through the day on which they might fast. The drink is called Chatu and is prepared from millet and sorghum. On arrival I drank a glass of this and also a glass of ‘bel’ juice, known to have properties that protect one from sunstroke. We were also given two types of puffed reddish rice, combined with ‘tok doi’ (yoghurt) and liquid ‘gur’.

For the previous three days a ‘mela’ at which many of Naya Krishi Andolan, thousands of farmers from many parts of the country, had come to join a seminar and to participate in the cultural celebrations of Sangkranti. Also, a number of local Tangail weavers had set up stalls to market their beautiful handloom cloth.

Baishakh1About 500 weaving families survive reasonably well by selling their products through ‘Prabartana’ in Mohammadpur and other outlets. Sadly, however, hundreds of other weavers remain, like bonded labour, in the clutches of the ‘Mahajans’.

Near to the handloom weavers’ stalls, I met a village midwife surrounded by more than 50 different medicinal plants in pots which she uses for different problems related to pre-natal, natal, and post-natal problems. Surely, I say to myself, there is a need to spread this indigenous knowledge further.

Baishakh2She emphasised that for full effect the plants should be growing in their natural habitat and not in pots. The pots were just brought to the mela to educate people like us.

Naya Krishi Andolan has its Community Seed Wealth Centre at the centre where it preserves and multiplies indigenous rice seed through its Naya Krishi Andolan farmers. At the time of my visit, they had identified that about 1,200 local varieties are doing well in different parts of the country, but about 500 were endangered varieties.

Baishakh3We keep hearing that because of ‘Climate Change’, new genetically modified hybrid varieties must be developed for drier places, hotter places, more flooded places, etc. At this centre varieties have already been classified in this way. The local varieties, I was told, already, going back centuries, have the characteristics to face up to the problems expected with climate change.

I first visited this area, nearly 30 years ago and visited the villages and studied the agriculture and people’s livelihoods. Talking to the local people that day, especially farmers, was interesting and depressing. They say that as, no more, are there ‘birds of prey’ such as kites hovering up in the sky, it is clear that the ‘food chain’ has broken and that we are heading for some sort of catastrophe. In the old days the fishes and frogs in the paddy fields would eat the insects and the kites would eat them, mice and rats. There are no fishes in the paddy fields now and there are far, far fewer frogs. This is all to do, they say, with poisoning the land with fertiliser and insecticide.

Later on I joined a ‘Sangkranti’ lunch. On this day no meat, fish or eggs should be eaten. To emphasise the strong link between man and nature 14 different types of ‘shak’ (spinach) are eaten and all 14 varieties have to be ‘uncultivated’, so had been collected from here and there. So we had some red rice, the 14 types of shak, 5 types of dal cooked together as well as a special ‘khichuri’

Pahela Baishakh and remembering Apr 14, 1971

I was first introduced to Pahela Baishakh by the Bengali community in Gaya, Bihar, India, where I lived and worked in the late 1960s. If Sangkranti brings the year to a close, Pahela Baishakh on Apr 14 is a new beginning. I found that people thoroughly cleaned their houses and went to visit their relations and friends usually wearing new clothes. The cleaning of houses reminded me of my childhood in London when, every March/April, my mother would embark on ‘Spring Cleaning’ of the house.

In 1971, while refugee camps were being hurriedly set up in the border areas of India and Bangladesh, Indians living near the border shared the special foods of that day with the families that had fled in fear from Bangladesh. The singing of Tagore songs about Pahela Baishakh gradually brought a few smiles to the faces of the refugee families.

Years later, after coming to Bangladesh and enjoying many Pahela Baishakh occasions, I have always looked forward to tasting the special foods of the day, especially Panta Bhat and Fried Ilish, always accompanied by different types of Bhorta.

It is such a very special day with the colours, the new clothes, the music and the wonderful food and everyone wishing each other ‘Shubho Noboborsho’.

Julian Francishas worked for many years in Bangladesh with poverty alleviation programmes and disability related programmes. In recognition of his work in 1971 The Government of Bangladesh, in 2012, bestowed on him ‘The Friends of Liberation War Honour’.

4 Responses to “Sangkranti and Pahela Baishakh”

  1. Ashutosh Mallik

    Salute Julian Francis,
    You are one of the respected freedom fighter and lover of
    Bengali culture .
    Shuvo Nababarsha to you and your family.

  2. M. Emad

    Except the Punjabi and Sindhi Muslims of current Pakistan, almost all other major ethno-linguistic communities in South Asia and South-East Asia celebrate Baisakhi/ Vaishakhi/ Vasakhi New Year festival at the beginning of summer (mid-April).
    Similarly, for thousands of years, the Persians and their culturally related Afghans, Kurds and other central Asian groups celebrate Nowruz New Year festival at the beginning of spring (around mid-March).
    However, majority people of the artificially created country Pakistan have no New Year of their own — borrowed English (Gregorian calendar) new year celebrated by youths in big cities and the Arabic Hijri year by conservative Muslims.

  3. Belal Beg

    The accursed communal politics never brought the State to the people or the people to the State. This is delaying the full revival of all our best that could really bring the very humane and colorful Bangla culture to the focus of the world audience. I am impressed with your insight of Bengali life and culture. Thank you for the article.

  4. Shadier

    Bless you, Julian Francis. As always, your article is full of love and sympathy for the Bengali and for Bangladesh. What you have achieved single-handedly for this country, is awe-inspiring. You are a beacon of hope for us, you have been and will continue to be so.
    Shubho Noboborsho to you and your family. In humility and joy, from the Bengalis of his beleaguered but proud nation. Thank you.

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